Instruction cycle in computer architecture

What are the phases of instruction cycle?

There are six fundamental phases of the instruction cycle : fetch instruction (aka pre-fetch) decode instruction . evaluate address (address generation)

What is the basic instruction cycle?

In a basic computer, each instruction cycle consists of the following phases: Fetch instruction from memory. Decode the instruction . Read the effective address from memory.

What is the function of store cycle in an instruction cycle?

The main job of the CPU is to execute programs using the fetch-decode-execute cycle (also known as the instruction cycle ). This cycle begins as soon as you turn on a computer. To execute a program, the program code is copied from secondary storage into the main memory.

What is instruction execution?

INSTRUCTION EXECUTION . As discussed earlier that the basic function performed by a computer is the execution of a program. The program which is to be executed is a set of instructions which are stored in memory. The central processing unit (CPU) executes the instructions of the program to complete a task.

What are the 4 steps of the machine cycle?

Four steps of machine cycle Fetch – Retrieve an instruction from the memory. Decode – Translate the retrieved instruction into a series of computer commands. Execute – Execute the computer commands. Store – Send and write the results back in memory.

What is instruction cycle in computer?

The instruction cycle (also known as the fetch–decode–execute cycle , or simply the fetch-execute cycle ) is the cycle that the central processing unit ( CPU ) follows from boot-up until the computer has shut down in order to process instructions .

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What is instruction sequencing?

instruction sequencing The order in which the instructions in a program are carried out. This sequence is interrupted when a branch instruction is executed; at such a time the address field of the branch instruction is inserted into the program counter and the process continues.

What is interrupt cycle?

Interrupt Cycle : It is the process by which a computer retrieves a program instruction from its memory, determines what actions the instruction requires, and carries out those actions. This cycle is repeated continuously by the central processing unit (CPU), from bootupto when the computer is shut down.

What is clock cycle?

A clock cycle , or simply a ” cycle ,” is a single electronic pulse of a CPU. Since modern processors can complete millions of clock cycles every second, processor speeds are often measured in megahertz or gigahertz. The frequency of a processor is also known as the processor’s clock speed.

What are the 4 functions of the CPU?

CPU has four basic functions to perform a task: Fetch. The first step of a CPU is to fetch instructions from the program memory . Decode . After fetching information CPU will determine what to do with that data next, this step is the decode step. Execute. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Control Unit (CU)

What do you mean by instruction cycle and interrupt cycle?

In a instruction cycle , the interrupt is the last part. Interrupts occur at random times during the execution of a program, in response to signals from hardware. devices (hardware interrupts – e.g: input available), or by a CPU instruction (traps – e.g: syscalls, breakpoints).

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What is decode in computer?

Decoding or decode may refer to: is the process of converting code into plain text or any format that is useful for subsequent processes.

What are the three basic steps in the instruction execution cycle?

To actually run the code, the processor then needs to retrieve instructions one by one from memory so it can run them. This process consists of three stages : fetching the instruction , decoding the instruction , and executing the instruction – these three steps are known as the machine cycle .

Which is the fastest memory?

Fastest memory is cache memory . Registers are temporary memory units that store data and are located in the processor, instead of in RAM , so data can be accessed and stored faster .

What is instruction execution rate?

Instruction Execution Rate •A common measure of performance for a processor is the rate at which instructions are executed •Millions of instructions per second (MIPS)•Millions of floating point instructions per second (MFLOPS)•Heavily dependent on instruction set, compiler design, processor implementation, cache & memory